From Does archeology support the Quran?
to the Qur’an, Mecca was the first and most important city in the
world. Adam placed the black stone in the original Ka’ba (sanctuary)
there, while Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt the Meccan Ka’ba centuries
later (Sura 2:125-127). Mecca was allegedly the centre of Arabian
trading routes before Muhammad’s time.
Yet there is no
archeological corroboration for this. Such a great ancient city would
surely have received a mention in ancient history. However, the earliest
reference to Mecca as a city is in the Continuato Byzantia Arabica, an
8th century document. Mecca is certainly not on the natural overland
trade routes- it is a barren valley requiring a one hundred mile detour.
Moreover, there was only maritime Graeco-Roman trade with India after
the first century, controlled by the Ethiopian Red Sea port Adulis, not
by the Arabs. If Mecca was not even a viable city, let alone a great
commercial centre until after Muhammad’s time, the Qur’an is seriously